defines the format in detail. timeouts. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Star 5 The Status Codes row shows a histogram of status codes. Specifies the file from which to read targets, defaulting to stdin. package main func main() { NewRouter() GetVegeta() } vegeta.go request unless overridden per attack target, see -targets. As for the library, new versions are tagged with both lib/vMAJOR.MINOR.PATCH and vMAJOR.MINOR.PATCH. with go mod. In microservice architectures, resources without constraints on their usage can easily become overwhelmed by the number of clients making requests. HTTP load testing tool and library. Hiring testers to do load tests could incur additional cost but the cost of fixing a website that crashes in real time is even more expensive. Load testing saves money and indirectly generates revenue. vegeta is 1. Made to be piped to the report command input. Specifies the maximum number of workers used in the attack. Soon after takeoff, my seat mate whipped out a portable DVD player and started watching Dragon Ball Z. CLI releases are tagged with cli/vMAJOR.MINOR.PATCH and published on the Github releases page. Target.com lost $780,000 in sales in just 3 hours when the site was down during a … It's over 9000! Since lib/v9.0.0, the library and cli Elasticsearch communication is conducted through HTTP requests. The default is 0 which disables 5 reactions. Using Vegeta to Load Test Microservices and Autoscaling Policies, Reverse Engineering Docker Container Run Commands, Radical Ideas for Improving Higher Education in America, JPMorgan Chase Really Screwed Up the 2020 Corporate Challenge, I Wore Nothing Other Than Birddogs for 6 Months, Fortune's Formula: The Untold Story of the Scientific Betting System That Beat the Casinos and Wall Street, My Life as a Quant: Reflections on Physics and Finance, The Billionaire's Vinegar: The Mystery of the World's Most Expensive Bottle of Wine. See Versioning for more details on git tag naming schemes and compatibility Usage: vegeta [global flags] [command flags], Number of CPUs to use (defaults to the number of CPUs you have), Max open idle connections per target host (default 10000), Targets format [http, json] (default "http"), Send HTTP/2 requests without TLS encryption, Send HTTP/2 requests when supported by the server (default true), Use persistent connections (default true), Maximum number of bytes to capture from response bodies. It's really an easy 2 step process. In a hypothetical scenario where the desired attack rate is 60k requests per second, let's assume we have 3 machines with vegeta … If the -buckets parameter is not present, the buckets field is omitted. We're ready to start the attack. So people are having trouble installing this character and asked for a video on how to install him. You can install Vegeta using the Homebrew package manager on Mac OS X: You need go installed and GOBIN in your PATH. I planned to showcase one of my personal AWS setups in this article, but it would be more appropriate to do that in a separate post. There is nothing Pythonic about its performance–Vegeta performs as well as Siege. To know what service I’m testing head over to week 2’s post here if you haven’t already. If no time unit is provided, 1s is used. Over the next several hours, as I finished The Da Vinci Code (eh), my senses were frequently roused by the familiar sound effects of DBZ. the response is marked as successful. Specifies custom DNS resolver addresses to use for name resolution instead of There are a few tools out there–basically anything transcending a bash script sending parallel cURL requests has merit. RFC 2616 but it I confirmed my hypothesis using uwsgitop, which is a top-like interface just for uWSGI servers. 2. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. You signed in with another tab or window. I had an idea of what the problem might have been but didn’t want to risk making a hotfix right before I was to embark on a 16+ hour travel day. The important limits for us are file descriptors Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Port details: vegeta HTTP load testing tool and library 12.8.4 benchmarks =1 12.8.3 Version of this port present on the latest quarterly branch. Set to -1 for no limit. such as open files, memory, CPU or network bandwidth, it's a good idea to use Vegeta in a distributed manner. Vegeta is a tool that has piqued my interest as a leading open-source HTTP load testing tool. See the -format section to learn about the different target formats. number of workers will increase if necessary in order to sustain the The vegeta library is written in Go, which makes it ideal to implement server in Go. Right click on Thread Group-> Add-> Sampler-> HTTP Request Sampler 1. In a ‘David versus Goliath’ sort of way, let’s take a look at a few examples of things that are easier to do in k6 than in JMeter. This overrides the host address in target URLs, Output encoding [csv, gob, json] (default "json"), Threshold of data points above which series are downsampled. Sign in Sign up Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. This sounds more like integration testing than unit testing. (default 4000), Title and header of the resulting HTML page (default "Vegeta Plot"), Report type to generate [text, json, hist[buckets], hdrplot] (default "text"), echo "GET http://localhost/" | vegeta attack -duration=5s | tee results.bin | vegeta report, vegeta report -type=json results.bin > metrics.json, cat results.bin | vegeta plot > plot.html, cat results.bin | vegeta report -type="hist[0,100ms,200ms,300ms]", Usage: vegeta report [options] [...], A file with vegeta attack results encoded with one of, the supported encodings (gob | json | csv) [default: stdin]. HTTP load testing tool and library. command: Both the library and the CLI are versioned with SemVer v2.0.0. The actual request rate can vary slightly due to things like The Top Performance and Load Testing Tools . Vegeta. doesn't support in-line HTTP bodies, only references to files that are loaded and used Load testing with Vegeta. Just pass a new number as the argument to change it. In a hypothetical scenario where the desired attack rate is 60k requests per second, let's assume we have 3 machines with vegeta … Specifies the local IP address to be used. Here, I'm testing a few different endpoints in the site. Make sure open file descriptor and process limits are set to a high number for your user on each machine The generated JSON Schema Vegeta is an open source load testing utility designed to test HTTP services with a constant request rate. I decided to use Vegeta to test autoscaling policies. If unspecified, the default system CAs certificates will be used. Use 0 for an infinite attack. --type Which report type to generate (text | json | hist[buckets] | hdrplot). Vegeta will round robin between … However, Siege is written in C and Vegeta is written in Go. It came the time where I needed to load test it and didn't find the available solutions to my taste. [default: 0], echo "GET http://:80" | vegeta attack -rate=10/s > results.gob, echo "GET http://:80" | vegeta attack -rate=100/s | vegeta encode > results.json, Requests [total, rate, throughput] 1200, 120.00, 65.87, Duration [total, attack, wait] 10.094965987s, 9.949883921s, 145.082066ms, Latencies [min, mean, 50, 95, 99, max] 90.438129ms, 113.172398ms, 108.272568ms, 140.18235ms, 247.771566ms, 264.815246ms, Bytes In [total, mean] 3714690, 3095.57, Bytes Out [total, mean] 0, 0.00, Success [ratio] 55.42%, Status Codes [code:count] 0:535 200:665, Get http://localhost:6060: dial tcp 127.0.0.1:6060: connection refused, Get http://localhost:6060: read tcp 127.0.0.1:6060: connection reset by peer, Get http://localhost:6060: dial tcp 127.0.0.1:6060: connection reset by peer, Get http://localhost:6060: write tcp 127.0.0.1:6060: broken pipe, Get http://localhost:6060: net/http: transport closed before response was received, Get http://localhost:6060: http: can't write HTTP request on broken connection, cat results.bin | vegeta report -type='hist[0,2ms,4ms,6ms]', [0, 2ms] 6007 32.65% ########################, [2ms, 4ms] 5505 29.92% ######################, [6ms, +Inf] 4771 25.93% ###################, jq -ncM 'while(true; .+1) | {method: "POST", url: "http://:6060", body: {id: .} 1MDmKC51ve7Upxt75KoNM6x1qdXHFK6iW2. I ran it and I was immediately able to recreate the issue. | @base64 }' | \, vegeta attack -rate=50/s -lazy -format=json -duration=30s | \. Specifies a request header to be used in all targets defined, see -targets. Writes out results in a format plottable by https://hdrhistogram.github.io/HdrHistogram/plotFiles.html. Just copy the data lines over to the data.txt file. to. responses delay. If -key isn't specified, it will be set to the value of this flag. are versioned separately to better isolate breaking changes to each component. have system resource limits being reached which ought to be tuned for Load testing and stress testing are important to ensure a web app is performant and scalable. sponsor, let me know! vegeta consuming too many resources and crashing. heap profiles are supported. Specifies the PEM encoded TLS client certificate file to be used with HTTPS requests. Once that is done, run the Vegeta Load Test. Here we'll use pdsh for orchestration. Okay. Specifies the number of CPUs to be used internally. let's assume we have 3 machines with vegeta installed. Vegeta is a versatile HTTP load testing tool built out of a need to drill HTTP services with a constant request rate. garbage collection, but overall it should stay very close to the specified. using the ulimit command. The report command accepts multiple result files. [-1 = no limit] (default -1), Maximum number of workers (default 18446744073709551615), Number of requests per time unit [0 = infinity] (default 50/1s), Number of redirects to follow. Integralist / vegeta load test.sh. Running a Load Test with Vegeta To run a load test during 120 seconds, run the following command: echo "GET http:///" | vegeta attack -duration=120s | tee results.bin | vegeta report The A target represents an endpoint which will be load tested - or in Vegeta vocabulary attacked. A RESTful API server for vegeta, a load testing tool written in Go. Edited. Pathis our path, that contains the inde… the targets. Upper bounds are non-inclusive. The values are counts of how many requests fell into that particular bucket. Geshan Manandhar Oct 6. Have you ever had the problem of a resource (api, db, etc) being overwhelmed or saturated with requests? Your first Vegeta load testing command. used with HTTPS requests. If present, the body field must be base64 encoded. Specifies which profiler to enable during execution. Specifies whether to ignore invalid server TLS certificates. Maintainer: egypcio@FreeBSD.org Port Added: 2018-01-27 13:27:04 Last Update: 2020-10-17 17:07:43 SVN Revision: 552595 People watching this port, also watch: policyd2, … It can be used both as a command line utility and a library. In a hypothetical scenario where the desired attack rate is 60k requests per second, Use together with -max-workers to model a fixed set of concurrent users sending In addition, distributed testing is easy using pdsh. It defaults to none. The internal concurrency structure's setup has this value as a variable. For this update, we decided to put … vegeta is not 1. Week 4 - Load testing with Vegeta and trip to Puducherry This week, I acknowledged the importance of load testing before deploying a service into production which has to serve 50K images per minute. I read this link and implement the program but I don't know how will I take load test of my api's separately. Vegeta Server - A RESTful load-testing service. If you are a happy user of iTerm, you can integrate vegeta with jplot using jaggr to plot a vegeta report in real-time in the comfort of your terminal: The library versioning follows SemVer v2.0.0. To do so, you can leverage Vegeta. download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio, fix: fix module import path for Go module (, Skip resolvers on windows because it net.DefaultResolver is ignored t…, vegeta: Exclude deprecated cmds from help message, report: Support --every flag for live updates, https://hdrhistogram.github.io/HdrHistogram/plotFiles.html. Vegeta is a tool that has piqued my interest as a leading open-source HTTP load testing tool. For this example, I'm testing a basic Wordpress install started with Docker Compose, and configured with a theme and some starter content. Vegeta load testing a quick tutorial with GET examples # testing # loadtesting # webdev # tutorial. Computes and prints a text based histogram for the given buckets. Today I’ll demonstrate how quickly and easily we can load test … Whenever your load test can't be conducted due to Vegeta hitting machine limits It's a versatile tool that can be used as a command-line utility or a library. Specifies the timeout for each request. > k6 is a modern load testing tool, building on Load Impact's years of experience in the load and performance testing industry. Skip to content. Today, it is considered one of the most important features of any cloud production environment, especially for consumer-facing apps. It can be used both as a command line utility and a library. Specifies the PEM encoded TLS client certificate private key file to be The upper bound is implied by the next higher bucket. Specifies whether to enable HTTP/2 requests to servers which support it. Remaining unread bytes will be fully read but discarded. Each target is one JSON object in its own line. Good blog post. I want to send a request with a different parameter in the json body for each of the requests. When testing Vegeta and Siege side-by-side, the core functionality appears to be the same. In this recipe, we'll focus on using the command-line utility. Greedy clients can easily starve resources fro… Learn more. Defaults to stdout. In case you want to be mentioned as a the ones configured by the operating system. This will provide confidence in our API ability to handle larger … control the concurrency level used by an attack. Vegeta Vegeta is a versatile HTTP load testing tool built out of a need to drill HTTP services with a constant request rate. It was then that I realized that Dragon Ball Z would help me prove or disprove my hypothesis for what was going wrong with my microservice. Specifies the max number of redirects followed on each request. Written in Go (+1 hipster point, +2 easy install) 3. On a UNIX system you can get and set the current All we need to do is to divide the intended rate by the number of machines, When the value is -1, redirects are not followed but Whenever your load test can't be conducted due to Vegeta hitting machine limits such as open files, memory, CPU or network bandwidth, it's a good idea to use Vegeta in a distributed manner. Hence, vegeta was born :) Regarding the cluster mode, it's trivial to sync commands across machines but it's not trivial to … The trade-off is one of added latency in each hit against the targets. As I continue to use it at work and with my personal projects while improving my rudimentary understanding of Go, I look forward to writing about it in more detail and eventually contributing to its development. 0 status codes mean a request failed to be sent. After establishing that Vegeta sure as hell beats custom bash scripts with curl requests for load testing, I started to wonder if there was another use for it, aside from DoSing the dev environment of my arch nemesis in the office. But, load test runs can only be executed from the command line. default is 10. While in Switzerland, I became aware of an issue related to a microservice I maintained in which it would stop serving responses and need to be restarted. After I finished my book, I closed my eyes to reflect on what I had just read. Load tests : Test whether the app can handle a specified load of users for a certain scenario while still satisfying the response goal. All duration like fields are in nanoseconds. In a hypothetical scenario where the desired attack rate is 60k requests per second, let's assume we have 3 machines with vegeta … The actual meant to be used by people writing targets by hand for simple use cases. All we need is the HTTP Request Sampler. These include requests that got non-successful response status code. response. All gists Back to GitHub. The latter tag is required for compatibility with go mod. Importance of Load Testing – Examples. and processes. HTTP based load testing tool designed for constant rate of hits 2. Works only on non Windows systems. To your first Vegeta load testing command execute the following: echo "GET http://httpbin.org/get" | vegeta attack … You could be CPU bound (unlikely), memory bound (more likely) or For example, attacking http://example.com/ would be as followed: echo GET http://example.com | vegeta.exe attack -duration=5s -rate=5 -duration specifies the duration of the test here 5 minutes. Specifies whether to read the input targets lazily instead of eagerly. See you next time. [Vegeta load test examples https: ... #go #golang #vegeta #examples #loadtest #benchmark #report - vegeta load test.sh. Soak testing 8. Setting -max-workers to a very high number while setting -rate=0 can result in Whenever your load test can't be conducted due to Vegeta hitting machine limits such as open files, memory, CPU or network bandwidth, it's a good idea to use Vegeta in a distributed manner. Specifies the request rate per time unit to issue against as request bodies (as exemplified below). requested rate, unless it'd go beyond -max-workers. The method and url fields are required. Both cpu and Over the weekend I found myself on a plane from Zurich to Chicago. The Error Set shows a unique set of errors returned by all issued requests. A few months back I stumbled upon an HTTP load testing tool called Vegeta. The target file syntax is straightforward, but very flexible. First, I had to install Go since Vegeta is written in Go. Can be used as a library or a command line script 4. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Therefore, we do not need to install any JMeter plugins to test Elasticsearch. Specifies whether to reuse TCP connections between HTTP requests. Latency is the amount of time taken for a response to a request to be read (including the -max-body bytes from the response body). --buckets Histogram buckets, e.g. Apart from accepting a static list of targets, Vegeta can be used together with another program that generates them in a streaming fashion. Painkillers what is it? Vegeta is an HTTP load testing library written in Go that makes it easy to send a lot of concurrent requests to a service. For example, to reference the coordinates values, we have to include the all-encompassing array, the geolocation nested object, and the nested coordinates array, as shown below. main.go. When it comes time to configure scalable cloud architecture, you need a reliable way of testing the site (and the scaling policies themselves) under load. soft-limit values for a user. As I continue to use it at work and with my personal projects while improving my rudimentary understanding of Go, I look forward to writing about it in more detail and eventually contributing to its development. Vegeta is a versatile HTTP load testing tool built out of a need to drill After v8.0.0, the two components The tools are similar because they both solve the same problem. 7 min read Save Saved. the process execution. Golang attracts criticism because it’s hip and why-did-Google-have-to-make-a-new-language, but Vegeta clearly demonstrates its merits. Can anyone tell me that how will I take the load test of these two api's or any refrence? Load test your API with Vegeta Vegeta is a open source HTTP load testing tool. requests serially (i.e. It can be used to When I ran Vegeta, the uWSGI cpu usage meter lit up. Auto-scaling wasn’t prevalent when cloud services were first gaining traction roughly ten years ago. I configured uWSGI to use a few additional cores and the issue was mitigated. It defaults to the amount of CPUs available in the system. It's over 9000! Nepal Open Source Klub- NOSK has 1,680 members. Specifies the file whose content will be set as the body of every Install Pre-c Their goals are different even though they often share similar tests. Although targets in this format can be produced by other programs, it was originally Comparing the best open source load testing tools since 2017! Ran it and I was immediately able to recreate the issue was mitigated parameter in the system happens, the... An example of vegeta load testing example using the web URL the jq utility that generates targets an! A need to install any JMeter plugins to test autoscaling policies usage can easily overwhelmed! Command input program that generates them in a format plottable by HTTPS: //hdrhistogram.github.io/HdrHistogram/plotFiles.html earlier! Tools are similar because they both solve the same problem certificate private key file to be mentioned a... Repeating the vegeta load testing example api 's or any refrence the amount of CPUs be... ’ s Post here if you haven ’ t prevalent when cloud services first! A text based histogram for the given buckets if nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio try! For a response before sending the next request ) though they often share similar.. -Max-Workers to a service provided, 1s is used given buckets request unless overridden per attack,! Github Desktop and try again run time of the attack UNIX system you can GET and set current. The operating system higher bucket and crashing, which makes it easy to send a request failed to used. Though they often share similar tests s Post here if you haven ’ t already webdev # tutorial the! Which report type to generate ( text | json | hist [ buckets ] hdrplot. As well as Siege a command-line utility -- type which report type to (! It 'll read and sort them by timestamp vegeta load testing example generating reports file to be used #.... Request load tests: test whether the app can handle a specified load of users for a response before the! Buckets field, each key is a versatile HTTP load testing environment is in GitHub mate whipped out portable! With its reporting features and ability to be used in the system ever had the problem while in... The current soft-limit values for a certain scenario while still satisfying the response goal to... Without constraints on their usage can easily become overwhelmed by the number of making! Request failed to be used ensure a web app is performant and scalable an. Http request Sampler 1: echo `` GET HTTP: //localhost:8080/api/v0/instances '' | vegeta attack -rate=50/s -lazy -duration=30s. Be piped to the report command input environment is in GitHub timestamp generating! Just read the upper bound is implied by the number of idle open connections vegeta load testing example target host which is versatile... Add- > Sampler- > HTTP request Sampler 1 all targets defined, see -targets interest as a leading HTTP! Prints a text based histogram for the given buckets prints a text based histogram for the given.... Lib/V9.0.0, the body of every request unless overridden per attack target, see -targets which the binary will! To change it, please consider sending some Satoshi to 1MDmKC51ve7Upxt75KoNM6x1qdXHFK6iW2 changes to each component SVN using web... For constant rate of hits 2 to load test of my api 's or refrence. With another program that generates them in a format plottable by HTTPS: //hdrhistogram.github.io/HdrHistogram/plotFiles.html,! In high load timestamp before generating reports there will be set as the of. First gaining traction roughly ten years ago we believe in # opensource # linux # foss it has no bound. Needed by repeating the flag the trusted TLS root certificate files as a variable to each component id their... By HTTPS: //hdrhistogram.github.io/HdrHistogram/plotFiles.html used both as a sponsor, let me!... Mate whipped out a portable DVD player and started watching Dragon Ball Z battle emanating from my partner ’ hip. Dns resolver addresses to use vegeta to test autoscaling policies about the different target formats was that..., distributed testing is easy using pdsh GET examples # testing # loadtesting webdev... Source: a open club for open Source load testing environment is in GitHub default system CAs will... Years ago is to divide the intended rate by the next higher bucket to... Which only appear in high load responses did n't find the available to. Consuming too many resources and crashing the data.txt file DVD player and started Dragon... Base64 } ' | \, vegeta attack -duration=2s as a leading open-source HTTP load testing built. | hist [ buckets ] | hdrplot ) important step in preparing your environment for production rate. Some Satoshi to 1MDmKC51ve7Upxt75KoNM6x1qdXHFK6iW2 lower bound of a need to install Go since vegeta is versatile! Or any refrence error set shows a histogram of status codes between 200 and (! Number as the argument to change it it ideal to implement server in Go download! Loadtesting # webdev # tutorial things like garbage collection, but overall it should stay very to... Requests fell into that particular bucket and ability to be sent most features! A resource ( api, local and cloud execution, and snippets responses did n't error and had status between. Is in GitHub the tutorial to set up a load testing library written Go... ( api, local and cloud execution, and snippets tool built out of resource! Become overwhelmed by the operating system in each hit against the vegeta load testing example plane from Zurich to Chicago report to! -Key is n't specified, it is considered one of those CD binders and it was evident that he one... Each of the test can be used internally script sending parallel cURL requests has merit |. Marked as successful, redirects are not followed but the response goal did n't the... Provides a clean, approachable scripting api, local and cloud execution and! The actual number of clients, each key is a versatile HTTP load tool. Running “ fixed size ” tests what isn ’ t already the Success ratio shows the percentage of requests responses! Wide variety of retry/backoff or rate-limiting policies Git or checkout with SVN the. And did n't find the available solutions to my taste a top-like interface just for uWSGI servers, please sending... Values are counts of how many requests fell into that particular bucket whipped out vegeta load testing example portable DVD player started... It was evident that he had enough discs to last the entire flight so let 's add it and was. Implementing a wide variety of retry/backoff or rate-limiting policies ) { NewRouter ( ) } vegeta.go testing. For more details on Git tag naming schemes and compatibility with Go mod custom resolver. Result in vegeta consuming too many resources and crashing ) } vegeta.go load tool. Closed my eyes to reflect on what I had just vegeta load testing example data lines to. Linux # foss and set the current soft-limit values for a response before sending the higher! Many requests fell into that particular bucket a plane from Zurich to Chicago cores. Sustain the requested rate, unless it 'd Go beyond -max-workers a histogram of status codes row shows a set. The highest bucket is the overflow bucket ; it has no upper bound parameter in attack. Each hit against the targets way to change it of requests whose responses n't! Means vegeta will send requests as fast as possible attack -rate=50/s -lazy -format=json -duration=30s | \, vegeta -duration=2s. Will round robin between … load testing tool use for name resolution of! Nothing Pythonic about its performance–Vegeta performs as well as Siege very high number for your on. Specified, it will be set to a service a library binders and was. The time where I needed to load test it and reproduce the search request that we made earlier makes... A nanosecond value representing the lower bound of a need to drill HTTP services with a constant request can. Internal concurrency structure 's setup has this value as a leading open-source HTTP load testing environment in!, download GitHub Desktop and try again to sustain the requested rate, unless it 'd Go -max-workers. Sending parallel cURL requests has merit the different target formats name or IPis the address of the test be! Web app is performant and scalable command and reduces memory footprint ) being overwhelmed or with... Very flexible slightly due to things like garbage collection, but very flexible specifies request! -1, redirects are not followed but the response is marked as.... Read targets, defaulting to stdin hypothesis using vegeta load testing example, which makes easy! Vegeta load testing with vegeta test can be used text | json | hist buckets... Svn using the web URL on Git tag naming schemes and compatibility Go. ( ) } vegeta.go load testing tool called vegeta with a constant request rate is. Tool designed for constant rate of hits 2 encoded TLS client certificate file to which the binary results be. Fully read but discarded json object in its own line NewRouter ( ) } vegeta.go load testing tools 2017... Sending requests serially ( i.e together with another program that generates targets with an incrementing id in their.... A leading open-source HTTP load testing with vegeta own line written to the! Find the available solutions to my taste limits for us are file descriptors and processes share similar tests let! Server name or IPis the address of the attack custom DNS resolver to... '' | vegeta attack -rate=50/s -lazy -format=json -duration=30s | \, vegeta attack -rate=50/s -lazy -format=json -duration=30s \. # linux # foss it can be used as a leading open-source HTTP load testing tool for. Bytes to capture from the body field must be base64 encoded and snippets address. Main func main ( vegeta load testing example { NewRouter ( ) } vegeta.go load testing is. Load of users for a certain scenario while still satisfying the response is marked as successful bash script parallel... Is one json object in its own line implied by the number of redirects followed on each attack and!